Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major type of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the large bowel. The inflammation produces small sores called ulcers on the lining of your colon. This will typically begin in the rectum and then will spread upward, ultimately involving your whole colon.
While ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition, there are many ways to reduce that inflammation including medication. Surgery is only necessary if you experience a large loss, chronic and debilitating symptoms, a perforation of your colon, or a severe blockage.